Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
Page 25
Page 26
Page 27
Page 28
Page 29
Page 30
Page 31
Page 32
Page 33
Page 34
Page 35
Page 36
18THESWORDJANUARY2015Lateralityreerstothepreerencemosthumansdemonstrateoronesideotheirbodyovertheothere.g.handedness.ThispreerentialuseandsuperiorunctioningisintimatelyassociatedwiththedevelopmentospecialisedunctioninthehemispheresothebrainoronthesideothebodyeachbrainhemispherecontrolsLaterality4.Theexactoriginanddevelopmentomanualpreerencesisstilldebatablewithsometheoristsproposingthatlateralityisinheritedothersarguingthatitisdevelopedduringpregnancyduetoeitherintrauterineorcesorextrauterineenvironmentalactorsandnallythosewhoproposethatlateralityisnotbiologicallydeterminedbutsomethingthatcanbetrained.Lateralityplaysacentralroleinoppositionsportssuchasencinginwhichlet-handedathletesaretypicallyperceivedtohaveatacticaladvantageovertheirright-handedopponents.Interestinglywhereastheestimatedpercentageolet-handersinthegeneralpopulationisabout-3inoppositionsportsparticularlyatelitelevelestimatesrangerom3-Putermanetal..Oneotheproposedmechanismsorthisoverrepresentationandtacticaladvantageolet-handersisaneurophysiologicalone.Accordingtotheinnatesuperiorityhypothesislet-handersaresuperiortotheirright-handedopponentsbecauseothespecialisationotherighthemisphereothebraininputcentreinthiscaseHoltzenwhichisresponsibleormentalimageryandvisuospatialunctionsthatenableustoestimatedistanceanddepth.Consideringthatactionoutputislargelycontrolledbytheoppositesideothebrainonecanarguethatlet-handershaveananatomicaladvantagebecausetheirmaininputandoutputcentresareonthesameside.Thedominanceoonesideothebodyovertheotheri.e.lateralityisanongoingprocessthattakesplaceduringmotordevelopmentSterkowiczetal..Althoughthebodyhasmechanismsinplacethatensureabalancedandsymmetricaldevelopmentomotorabilitiesextensivepractiseoanoppositionsportsuchasencingromanearlyageleadstoanasymmetricaldevelopmentothebody.Despitesometacticaladvantageslateralitycanleadtotheoccurrenceoposturalasymmetriese.g.scoliosisandtheoccurrenceomusculoskeletalproblemssuchasbackandneckpainandhipandkneeproblems.SinceposturalasymmetrymayberesponsibleortheoccurrenceomusculoskeletalproblemsweexploredthelinksbetweenlateralityencingpractiseposturalasymmetryandpaininagroupocompetitiveincludingmembersothenationalteamandrecreationalencersinFrance.Individualswhoeltwell-adaptedtotheirposturalasymmetrywerelargelypain-ree.Incontrastthosewhohadgreaterposturalasymmetriesandimbalanceshadahigherrateopainrelatedsymptoms.Hereweproposeanumberostrategieswhichwehavebeenusinginconjunctionwithosteopathictreatmentaormomanualtherapyandthatwebelievecancontributetoaharmoniousdevelopmentolateralityandthereoremaximiseperormanceandpreventmusculoskeletalproblemsinencers.Ourproposedstrategiesaregroupedintheollowingcategoriesmentalimagerynon-dominantsidepractiseeyerelatedmusculatureexercisesandlowerlimbproprioceptiveexercises.MENTALIMAGERYMentalimageryisanimportantcomponentoourdailythinkingactivitiesanditisthereorelikelytoplayanimportantroleinencingparticularlyiitincludestheenvironmentanactiontakesplaceandthelevelotheactualskills.Sincementalimageryandperceptionsharemanyunctionalandbiologicalprocessesitspractiseislikelytorecruitthesameneuralpathwaysinvolvedinactualencing.Fromalateralityperspectiveitsusecanbeanefectivestrategytopromoteasymmetricaldevelopmentomotorandspatialabilitiesparticularlyipractisedonbothdominantandnon-dominantsides.ThisviewissupportedbyresearchinorexampletheeldojudoSterkowiczetal.NON-DOMINANTSIDEPRACTICERecentresearchinvestigatingtheinuenceoinitialpracticewiththedominantvs.non-dominanthandontheacquisitiononewthrowingskillssuggestthatcomplexmotorskillswhichplacehighdemandsontheprocessingovisuospatialinormationarebetterlearnedaterinitialpracticewiththenon-dominanthandStckelWeigelt.Oparticularrelevancetoencingisthendingthatpractisingwiththenon-dominanthandimprovesperormanceonthedominantside.Althoughwearenotproposingthattheacquisitiononewencingskillsshouldstartwiththenon-dominanthandregularcompensationtrainingusingthenon-dominantsideislikelytobenetperormanceonthedominantsidepromoteaharmoniousdevelopmentolateralityandminimiseposturalasymmetries.VISUALACCOMODATIONEXERCISEResearchdemonstratesthatvisioncaninuenceposturee.g.Baldinietal.3.Visionisalsoakeysensorysysteminencing.Thisexerciseisdesignedtoexercisetheeyemusclesinvolvedinvisualaccommodationwhichistheprocessbywhichtheeyeadjuststomaintainaclearocusatchangingdistances.LATERALITYANDPOSTURALASYMMETRIESINFENCINGJorgeEstevesJean-JacquesVignauxEytanBeckmanandJean-FranoisHennebicqHoldapencilatverticalpositionateyelevel...